• Blairmore Hydro Power Scheme
  • Clachan Hydro Power Scheme
  • Gortein Hydro Power Scheme
  • Phoines Hydro Power Scheme
  • Strachur Hydro Power Scheme
  • Portsonachan Hydro Power Scheme
  • Annat Farm Hydro Power Scheme
  • Pitmain Hydro Power Schemes
  • Rannachan Hydro Power Schemes
  • Utha Hydro Power Schemes
  • Auchtertyre Hydro Power Scheme
  • Glenorchy Hydro Power Scheme
  • Drimlee Hydro Power Scheme
  • Kilchrenan Hydro Power Scheme
  • Ardentinny Hydro Power Scheme
  • Micro Hydropower

  • Small Scale Hydro Power
  • Coignafearn Hydro Power Scheme
  • Achnacree Hydro Power Scheme
  • Barguillean Hydro Power Scheme
  • Laggan Hydro Power Scheme
  • Glencreran Hydro Power Scheme
  • Forest Estate Hydro, Isle of Jura
  • Inverkip Hydro
  • Ardmaddy Hydro Power Scheme
  • Ardnacross Hydro Power Scheme
  • Druimavuaic Hydro Power Scheme
  • KCDC - Gynack Hydro Power Scheme
  • Stronchullin Hydro Power Scheme
  • Harlaw Dam
  • Torluisk Hydro Power Scheme
  • Lephinchapel Hydro Power Scheme
  • Strathlachlan Hydro Power Scheme
  • Ardechive Hydro Power Scheme
  • Ardchyline Hydro Power Scheme
  • Areas of Expertise

    • DAMS

    Small Scale Hydro Power

    We are actively engaged in the planning, design and construction of numerous hydropower schemes in the scottish highlands. These projects are often in environmentally sensitive areas and require extreme care in design and construction. Their size ranges from 50kW to 1 MW or more.

    Hydro Power is increasingly seen as a means of generating a sustainable income from farms and rural estates that otherwise struggle to remain economically viable. Almost all estates in the highlands have some potential for a hydro scheme.

    Hydro Power installations are for the most part invisible, as the pipes are normally buried underground. They require a small intake weir on a burn or river, and a small building to house the turbine and generator. Some sites are suitable for a small dam and reservoir, which can increase the energy output by storing flood water and releasing it when required.

    We can carry out initial appraisals very rapidly, to assess the potential power yield of small rivers and streams. If a realistic potential is identified, the follow-up process involves environmental and hydrological studies, economic analysis and engineering design of dams, pipelines and associated structures.

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    Coignafearn Hydro Power Scheme

    Coignafearn is a 130 kW scheme, completed in 2008 and designed to store energy underground using ground-sourced heat pumps. It is not connected to the grid but energy not used directly in the estate buildings is diverted via 4 heat pumps into a group of 20 boreholes each 100m deep in hard rock. When the turbine is not running, the heat pumps are reversed and heat is extracted from the boreholes to be used in the buildings. The scheme is dependent on a storage reservoir which evens out the flow and also acts as an energy store.

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    Achnacree Hydro Power Scheme

    Achnacree Hydro Power Scheme in the Scottish Highlands shown under construction through to completion. This is a 100 kW scheme built in 2011 utilising an existing arch gravity dam. The penstock is a 500mm diameter HDPE pipe 850m long. Head 65m. Turbine is a Gilkes Turgo.

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    Barguillean Hydro Power Scheme

    Barguillean Hydro Power Scheme under construction in the Scottish Highlands. This is a 100kW scheme built in 2011. It takes water from three small mountain streams, combining into a single 315mm diameter penstock under a head of 200m. Turbine is a Tepersac Pelton.

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    Laggan Hydro Power Scheme

    Laggan Hydro Power Scheme under construction in the Scottish Highlands. This is a 100kW scheme built in 2011. It has four separate intakes on small mountain streams, feeding a Tepersac Pelton turbine under a head of 130m. Situated in the Loch Lomond National Park, the scheme had to meet stringent environmental and visual impact criteria.

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    Glencreran Hydro Power Scheme

    This is a 100 kW scheme completed in 2012. It has a single weir intake feeding a 500mm diameter penstock at a head of 65m. It is equipped with a Tinck 4-jet vertical axis Pelton turbine.

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    Forest Estate Hydro, Isle of Jura

    This is a 75 kW project in a remote site in the Hebrides. Pipe strings 200m long were fabricated on the mainland and towed by sea over a distance of 60 miles, then dragged ashore and up the hillside. A helicopter was used for placement of concrete in the intake weir to minimise damage to the site which had no access tracks.

    The turbine is a Tinck single jet pelton operating under a head of 120m.

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    Inverkip Hydro

    Inverkip is a 50kW low-head scheme with a Tinck Francis turbine. Head is 20m and flow rate 300 l/sec.

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    Ardmaddy Hydro Scheme

    Ardmaddy is a 100 kW scheme based on a concrete gravity dam and a 600m long pipeline, mainly through rock, with a head of 60m. The project was delayed for years due to a supposedly rare moss found in the proposed reservoir area. As a result the damsite was shifted downstream to a site far less suited to power generation with a much smaller reservoir.

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    Blairmore Hydro Scheme

    Blairmore hydropower scheme generates 100 kW through a head of 120m. turbine is a single jet tinck pelton.

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    Clachan Hydro Scheme

    Clachan hydropower  scheme generates 100 kW through 46m head, using a Tinck Francis turbine. It utilises an old concrete dam which also serves a fish hatchery.

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    Gortein Hydro Scheme

    Gortein is a replacement scheme for an original built in 1922. The original steel pipeline was overground and had been largely replaced with a GRP pipe. This had been rendered unserviceable by moorland fires and rockfalls. Under the present scheme the pipeline was replaced with an HDPE pipeline laid completely underground and invisible. The scheme is based on three dams and reservoirs which are still operational. The original turbine was one of Gilkes first turgos. It has been completely replaced with a modern version of the same.

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    Phoines Hydro Scheme

    Phoines is a scheme in the Grampian Highlands commissioned in 2015 to generate 100 kW through a head of 75m using a Tinck Pelton turbine.

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    Strachur Hydro Scheme

    Strachur hydropower scheme completed in 2013 generates 400 kW through a head of 175m, using a Tink vertical shaft 3 jet Pelton turbine.

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    Ardnacross Hydro Scheme

    Ardnacross is a 100 kW scheme on the Isle of Mull. It takes water via an unusual diversion channel which enabled the intake structure to be built off-stream in the dry. The turbine is a vertical shaft Tinck pelton with 4 jets, which give a high efficiency over a wide flow range.

    Head is 70m and design flow 190 l/sec. Penstock is 450mm diameter HDPE, length 980m.

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    Druimavuaic Hydro Scheme

    Druimavuaic is a 700 kW scheme in Argyll, completed July 2014. It generates 700 kW through a head of 220m and flow 460 l/sec. The turbine is a Tinck 4-jet horizontal Pelton with twin runners. The powerhouse is buried on 3 sides and has an in-built noise suppressor in the outfall, rendering it invisible and inaudible frorm most directions.

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    Portsonachan Hydro Scheme

    Portsonachan is a 100 kW scheme near Loch Awe, operating under a head of 113m and flow 115 l/sec. The terrain is very steep, - pipeline length is only 475m. The turbine is a Tinck twin-jet Pelton. The powerhouse is architecturally designed to suit the cramped site at the base of a wooded cliff.

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    Kingussie Community Development Company - Gynack Hydropower Scheme

    KCDC is a company established for the purpose of reconstructing a long-derelict hydro scheme on the River Gynack at Kingussie, Inverness-shire. After several years in planning and undergoing several changes in conceptual design, it is was completed in autumn 2014. The scheme generates 15 kW under a 4m head using an Ecowave crossflow turbine.

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    Annat Farm Hydropower Scheme

    Annat Farm is a 250 kW scheme which utilises an existing arch-gravity dam previously used for industrial water supply. A hole was drilled in the old dam to accommodate a 630mm diameter pipeline which feeds a Tinck vertical axis 5-jet Pelton turbine. Penstock length is 1200m, head 78m, design flow 420 l/sec.

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    Stronchullin Hydropower Scheme

    Stronchullin is a 100 kW scheme in Argyll. It takes water from a forested catchment and feeds a twin-jet horizontal axis Tinck Pelton turbine. Static head is 126m and design flow 110 l/sec.

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    Pitmain Hydropower Schemes

    The Pitmain Estate is developing two hydropower schemes and reconstructing the Gynack Dam, which is almost derelict.

    The Pitmain Estate has developed two hydropower schemes and reconstructed the Gynack Dam, which was almost derelict. Commissioning of all components was completed in late 2015. main contractor was R J McLeod.

    The Allt Mhor scheme produces 600 kW by abstracting water from two intakes on the upper Allt Mhor and the Allt Odhair. Water is carried in an underground pipeline to the powerhouse on the shore of Loch Gynack. This powerhouse is partially underground and only visible from the south. Pipeline diameter 560mm, length 3.3km, static head 224m, max flow rate 375 l/sec. Turbine is a twin rotor 4 jet horizontal Pelton by Tinck of Slovenia. Expected energy output is 2,400 MWh/ year equivalent to 1070 Tonnes of CO2. The intake structures are designed as crump weirs which are resistant to damage from rolling boulders in the bedload. They are screened with conventional coanda screens.

    The Gynack Scheme produces 50 kW using water spilling from Gynack Dam, replacing an earlier scheme originally built around 1900 and derelict since the 1960's. Water runs in an underground pipeline to a small powerhouse on the west bank of the Gynack Burn. This is be clad in larch and partially visible from the estate access road, screened by trees. Pipeline diameter 710mm, length 0.7km, static head 20m, max flow rate 375 l/sec. Turbine is a vertical shaft Tinck Francis.

    The Gynack Dam was reconstructed completely, thereby arresting the leakage which caused falling water levels in the summer. It has a concrete spillway designed to take a 1 in 10,000 year flood, and side embankments designed to overspill in extreme flood conditions without damage. It incorporates a screened intake for the Gynack power scheme, and a central fish pass.

    The combined schemes will have an ameliorating effect on flooding in Kingussie, and also increase the energy output of the KCDC community scheme which was completed in 2014. A second phase of development due for construction in 2016 will reduce the risk of flood damage in Kingussie by diverting flood water into Loch Gynack and releasing it in a more controlled rate than occurs naturally.

    The Allt Mhor - Gynack burn is prone to violent flooding which transports large boulders leading to frequent blockage and flooding around the bridges in Kingussie. The project is in an environmentally sensitive area of the Cairngorms National Park, and all construction operations were tightly controlled to limit damage to the landscape.

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    Harlaw Dam

    Harlaw Dam near Edinburgh has been in existence for nearly 200 years and is used for flood control on the water of Leith. A community-owned company has developed a 100kW power scheme on the outlet works and this was commissioned in mid-2015. The turbine is a vertical Francis by Tinck of Slovenia. The head is 18m but varies with water level in the reservoir, which is also used for angling. Maximum flow through the turbine Is 600 l/sec but flood releases up to 1300 l/sec can be made through the scour valve which is a free jet plunger type.

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    Rannachan Hydropower Scheme

    Rannachan is a 300 kW scheme in Inverailort, Western Highlands. It has a Tinck 3 jet vertical pelton turbine, commissioned in 2105.

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    Torluisk Hydropower Scheme

    Torluisk is a 100 kW scheme on the Isle of Mull. It has a Newmills vertical turgo turbine, commissioned in early 2015.

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    Utha Hydropower Scheme

    Allt Utha is a 500 kW scheme on the Glenfinnan Estate, Western Highlands. It has a Gilkes Turgo turbine commissioned in 2015. It has a single intake but also a diversion structure which diverts a restricted flow from an adjacent burn.


    Auchtertyre Hydropower Scheme

    Auchtertyre is a 50 kW scheme near Kyle of Lochalsh, Western Highlands. It has a Hydrover Turgo turbine commissioned in 2015. It is designed to be upgraded to 100kW when grid capacity becomes available. It has a head of 111m and flow rate 60 l/sec.


    Glenorchy Farm Hydropower Scheme

    Glenorchy Farm is a 90 kW scheme in Argyll. It has a Canyon Turgo turbine commissioned in late 2015. Total head is 150m, flow rate 80 l/sec. Although there is potential for 300kW, due to grid capacity restrictions the generator is split phase and limited to below 100kW.


    Lephinchapel Hydropower Scheme

    Lephinchapel is a 90 kW scheme on the east side of Loch Fyne, Argyll. It will have a Tinck pelton scheduled for commissioning in 2016. Due to grid capacity restrictions the generator is split phase and limited to below 100kW.


    Drimlee Hydropower Scheme

    Drimlee is a 400 kW scheme in Glen Shira, Argyll. Its twin jet horizontal Tinck pelton turbine was commissioned in December 2015. At 300m this is a very high head scheme, with an all-HDPE pipeline running down a very steep mountainside.


    Strathlachlan Hydropower Scheme

    Strathlachlan is a 220 kW scheme in Argyll. It has a 560mm diameter HDPE pipeline 1700 m long running through a head of 114m. The turbine is a Tinck vertical pelton with 4 jets.


    Kilchrenan Hydropower Scheme

    Kilchrenan is a 50 kW scheme in Argyll. It runs a Tinck 2 jet horizontal pelton turbine under a head of 76m. The penstock is 355mm diameter HDPE, 900m long. It was commissioned in 2016.


    Ardechive Hydropower Scheme

    Ardechive is a 100 kW scheme above Loch Arkaig in Highland Region. It has a head of 142m and a HDPE penstock 355mm diameter of length 1050m. It runs a Tinck twin jet horizontal Pelton turbine.


    Ardentinny Hydropower Scheme

    Ardentinny is a 100 kW scheme located in forestry land and within the Lomond and Trossachs National Park. It passes through terrain which is environmentally sensitive and technically challenging due to the steep slopes. The pipeline is 315mm diameter HDPE, 1600 m long and operates at a head of 224 m. The turbine is a single jet Tinck horizontal Pelton. A section of the pipeline had to be suspended on a steel gantry on a side slope which was too steep for access by machine.


    Ardchyline Hydropower Scheme

    Ardchyline is a 100kW scheme on the east side of Loch Fyne. It has a head of 220m and feeds a Canyon Pelton turbine through a 355mm diameter HDPE penstock of length 1500m.


    © Adrian Laycock Ltd 2000. Fair use and distribution of this material is encouraged provided proper citation is given.